The truncated icosahedron is the faced Archimedean solid corresponding to the facial arrangement. It is the shape used in the construction of soccer balls, and it was also the configuration of the lenses used for focusing the explosive shock waves of the detonators in the Fat Man atomic bomb Rhodesp.

The truncated icosahedron has 60 vertices, and is also the structure of pure carbon known as buckyballs a. The truncated icosahedron is uniform polyhedron and Wenninger model.

The dual polyhedron of the truncated icosahedron is the pentakis dodecahedron. The inradius of the dual, midradius of the solid and dual, and circumradius of the solid for are. The distances from the center of the solid to the centroids of the pentagonal and hexagonal faces are given by.

Trott illustrates how a torus can be continuously deformed into two concentric soccer balls of identical size and orientation with no tearing of the surface in this transition. In particular, the animation a few frames of which are illustrated above shows a smooth homotopy between the identity map and a particular map involving the Weierstrass elliptic functionwhich is a doubly-periodic function whose natural domain is a periodic parallelogram in the complex -plane.

Aldersey-Williams, H. The Most Beautiful Molecule. New York: Wiley, Chung, F. Cundy, H. Stradbroke, England: Tarquin Pub. Geometry Technologies. Kabai, S. Kasahara, K. Tokyo: Japan Publications, p.

Harris, J. Handbook of Mathematics and Computational Science. New York: Springer-Verlag, p. Rhodes, R. Touchstone Books, Trott, M. Wenninger, M. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, p. Weisstein, Eric W. Explore thousands of free applications across science, mathematics, engineering, technology, business, art, finance, social sciences, and more. Walk through homework problems step-by-step from beginning to end.

Hints help you try the next step on your own. Unlimited random practice problems and answers with built-in Step-by-step solutions. Practice online or make a printable study sheet. Collection of teaching and learning tools built by Wolfram education experts: dynamic textbook, lesson plans, widgets, interactive Demonstrations, and more.

MathWorld Book. Terms of Use. Eight Icosahedra. Contact the MathWorld Team. Metamorphic Soccer Ball. Constraint Tiling on a Truncated Icosahedron.A truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solid. A regular icosahedron is made of 20 faces.

**New Polyhedron Discovery**

When a regular icosahedron is truncated, this means that each "corner" or vertex is replaced by a pentagonas there are five edges at each corner. A truncated icosahedron is made of 12 regular pentagons and 20 hexagons. It has 60 vertices, and 90 edges. The molecule Fullerene is made of 60 carbon atoms and looks like a truncated icosahedron. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Archimedean solids. Rhombicuboctahedron Icosidodecahedron Truncated tetrahedron Truncated cube Truncated octahedron Truncated dodecahedron Truncated icosahedron Cuboctahedron Rhombicosidodecahedron Truncated cuboctahedron Snub dodecahedron Truncated icosidodecahedron Snub cube.

Category : Archimedean solids.

Namespaces Page Talk. Views Read Change Change source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last changed on 1 Marchat See Terms of Use for details. Truncated tetrahedron. Truncated cube.

Use the navigation task pane to find all instances of the word scrubs in the documentTruncated octahedron. Truncated dodecahedron. Truncated icosahedron. Truncated cuboctahedron. Snub dodecahedron.In geometrythe truncated icosahedron is an Archimedean solidone of 13 convex isogonal nonprismatic solids whose faces are two or more types of regular polygons.

It has 20 regular hexagonal faces, 60 vertices and 90 edges, it is 1,1, containing pentagonal and hexagonal faces. This geometry is associated with footballs patterned with white hexagons and black pentagons. Geodesic domes such as those whose architecture Buckminster Fuller pioneered are based on this structure, it corresponds to the geometry of the fullerene C60 molecule.

It is used in the cell-transitive hyperbolic space-filling tessellationthe bitruncated order-5 dodecahedral honeycomb; this polyhedron can be constructed from an icosahedron with the 12 vertices truncated such that one third of each edge is cut off at each of both ends.

This creates 12 new pentagon faces, leaves the original 20 triangle faces as regular hexagons, thus the length of the edges is one third of that of the original edges. The truncated icosahedron has five special orthogonal projections, centered, on a vertex, on two types of edges, two types of faces: hexagonal and pentagonal; the last two correspond to the A2 and H2 Coxeter planes. The truncated icosahedron can be represented as a spherical tilingprojected onto the plane via a stereographic projection; this projection is conformal, preserving angles but not lengths.

Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane. This result is easy to get by using one of the three orthogonal golden rectangles drawn into the original icosahedron as the starting point for our considerations; the angle between the segments joining the center and the vertices connected by shared edge is With unit edges, the surface area is 21 for the pentagons and 52 for the hexagons, together The ball comprises the same pattern of regular pentagons and regular hexagons, but it is more spherical due to the pressure of the air inside and the elasticity of the ball; this ball type was introduced to the World Cup in Geodesic domes are based on triangular facetings of this geometry with example structures found across the world, popularized by Buckminster Fuller.

A variation of the icosahedron was used as the basis of the honeycomb wheels used by the Pontiac Motor Division between and on its Trans Am and Grand Prix; this shape was the configuration of the lenses used for focusing the explosive shock waves of the detonators in both the gadget and Fat Man atomic bombs. The truncated icosahedron can be described as a model of the Buckminsterfullereneor "buckyball," molecule, an allotrope of elemental carbon, discovered in The diameter of the football and the fullerene molecule are 22 cm and about 0.

In popular craft culture, large sparkleballs can be made using a icosahedron pattern and plastic, styrofoam or paper cups. A truncated icosahedron with "solid edges" by Leonardo da Vinci appears as an illustration in Luca Pacioli's book De divina proportione ; these uniform star-polyhedra, one icosahedral stellation have nonun. Duotone is a halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting color halftone over another color halftone. This is most used to bring out middle tones and highlights of an image.

Traditionally the superimposed contrasting halftone color is black and the most implemented colours are blue, yellow and red, however there are many varieties of color combinations used.

Due to recent advances in technology, duotones and quadtones can be created using image manipulation programs. Duotone color mode in Adobe Photoshop computes the highlights and middle tones of a monochrome image in one color, allows the user to choose any color ink as the second color.

A fake duotone, or duograph, is done by printing a single color with a one-color halftone over it; this process is not preferred over a regular duotone, as it loses much of the contrast of the image but it is easier and faster to create.

Ales Prudnikau was a Belarusian poet. He was a cousin of Pavel Prudnikau. Ales Prudnikau was born into a peasant family, his father Traphim was called to the front at the time of World War Ihe was badly injured and died soon after. Because of the unstable situation Ales couldn't find a constant place tor study for a long time. In he was studying in the seven-years school in the village Miloslavicy.

Cosmax contactIn he worked on the building of the railway Asipovichy - Mahilyow - Roslavl in he worked in Minsk. In he was studying at the creative department of the Minsk pedagogical institute.Q uite a few geometry software can produce complicated geometrical objects. The Platonic solids and Archimedian solids for example, can be produced using dynamic geometry systems DGS. In VRMath2, similar reasoning may be used, but because it has a Logo programming or turtle geometry capability, most of these complicated geometrical solids can actually be constructed by moving locations and turning directions.

In order to construct a soccer ball or a truncated icosahedron using Logo or turtle geometry way, it is necessary to know the distance to move and degrees to turn.

### Article 51: Geometry - Platonic Solids - Part 12 - The Dodecahedron

Upon reading the information on Wikipedia about truncated icosahedronI found that all edges are the same length, and there are two useful angles for the construction of this truncated icosahedron. These two angles are the two dihedral angles:.

With the above information, I was able to move and turn the turtle in 3D space to construct a soccer ball as below. Please leave a comment below and let me know what you think or your questions. In the logo program above, the line 7 was an effort to set the rotation centre. But now there is no need to do so. Follow VRMath2. Create Share Discuss Wiki.

## Truncated Icosahedron - Soccer Ball

Search this site:. Register Log In. Similar blogs you may be interested in. VAM Temple project. Created by: Andy. Ice Cream Cone. Cube to Rectangular Prism. Created by: advercis. Truncated cube. Created by: crystal h. A 3D geometric shape. Created by: A Created by: Alex.

Amazing shape.The regular icosahedron is one of the five Platonic solids. It is a convex regular polyhedron composed of twenty triangular faces, with five meeting at each of the twelve vertices. It has 30 edges and 12 vertices. Its dual polyhedron is the dodecahedron. The following Cartesian coordinates define the vertices of an icosahedron with edge-length 2, centered at the origin:.

Note that these vertices form five sets of three mutually centered, mutually orthogonal golden rectangles. The 12 edges of a regular octahedron can be partitioned in the golden ratio so that the resulting vertices define a regular icosahedron. This is done by first placing vectors along the octahedron's edges such that each face is bounded by a cycle, then similarly partitioning each edge into the golden mean along the direction of its vector.

The five octahedra defining any given icosahedron form a regular polyhedral compoundas do the two icosahedra that can be defined in this way from any given octahedron. Indeed, intersecting such a system of equiangular lines with an Euclidean sphere centered at their common intersection yields the twelve vertices of a regular icosahedron as can easily be checked. Conversely, supposing the existence of a regular icosahedron, lines defined by its six pairs of opposite vertices form an equiangular system.

In order to construct such an equiangular system, we start with the matrix. According to specific rules defined in the book The fifty nine icosahedra59 stellations were identified for the regular icosahedron.

### Truncated icosahedron

The first form is the icosahedron itself. One is a regular Kepler-Poinsot solid. Three are regular compound polyhedra. There are distortions of the icosahedron that, while no longer regular, are nevertheless vertex-uniform.

These are invariant under the same rotations as the tetrahedronand are somewhat analogous to the snub cube and snub dodecahedronincluding some forms which are chiral and some with T h -symmetry, i. The icosahedron has a large number of stellationsincluding one of the Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra and some of the regular compounds, which could be discussed here.

Its dihedral angle is approximately It is one of the five Platonic solidsand the one with the most sides. It has five equilateral triangular faces meeting at each vertex. A regular icosahedron is a strictly convex deltahedron and a gyroelongated pentagonal bipyramid and a biaugmented pentagonal antiprism in any of six orientations. If the edge length of a regular icosahedron is athe radius of a circumscribed sphere one that touches the icosahedron at all vertices is.

The surface area A and the volume V of a regular icosahedron of edge length a are:. A sphere inscribed in an icosahedron will enclose The midsphere of an icosahedron will have a volume 1. This arguably makes the icosahedron the "roundest" of the platonic solids.

Taking all permutations not just cyclic ones results in the Compound of two icosahedra. Note that these vertices form five sets of three concentric, mutually orthogonal golden rectangleswhose edges form Borromean rings. The 12 edges of a regular octahedron can be subdivided in the golden ratio so that the resulting vertices define a regular icosahedron. This is done by first placing vectors along the octahedron's edges such that each face is bounded by a cycle, then similarly subdividing each edge into the golden mean along the direction of its vector.

The five octahedra defining any given icosahedron form a regular polyhedral compoundwhile the two icosahedra that can be defined in this way from any given octahedron form a uniform polyhedron compound. The locations of the vertices of a regular icosahedron can be described using spherical coordinatesfor instance as latitude and longitude. This scheme takes advantage of the fact that the regular icosahedron is a pentagonal gyroelongated bipyramidwith D 5d dihedral symmetry â€”that is, it is formed of two congruent pentagonal pyramids joined by a pentagonal antiprism.

The icosahedron has three special orthogonal projectionscentered on a face, an edge and a vertex:. The icosahedron can also be represented as a spherical tilingand projected onto the plane via a stereographic projection. This projection is conformalpreserving angles but not areas or lengths. Straight lines on the sphere are projected as circular arcs on the plane.

Seen by these 2D Coxeter plane orthogonal projections, the two overlapping central vertices define the third axis in this mapping. Indeed, intersecting such a system of equiangular lines with a Euclidean sphere centered at their common intersection yields the twelve vertices of a regular icosahedron as can easily be checked. Conversely, supposing the existence of a regular icosahedron, lines defined by its six pairs of opposite vertices form an equiangular system.

A second straightforward construction of the icosahedron uses representation theory of the alternating group A 5 acting by direct isometries on the icosahedron.

Hgtv hometown makeover contestThe rotational symmetry group of the regular icosahedron is isomorphic to the alternating group on five letters. This non- abelian simple group is the only non-trivial normal subgroup of the symmetric group on five letters. Since the Galois group of the general quintic equation is isomorphic to the symmetric group on five letters, and this normal subgroup is simple and non-abelian, the general quintic equation does not have a solution in radicals.

The proof of the Abelâ€”Ruffini theorem uses this simple fact, and Felix Klein wrote a book that made use of the theory of icosahedral symmetries to derive an analytical solution to the general quintic equation, Klein Truncated Icosahedron. I have cut and glued numerous pieces of paper into just about all of the regular polyhedra.

One project I have wanted to do for some time is to build a wire-frame truncated icosahedron, otherwise known as a buckyball or the general shape of a soccer ball.

Folding paper and gluing the edges where they meet is a easy task, even for kids. For any of the regular polyhedra, there are hundreds of internet sites and dozens of books that will detail out how to find the dihedral angle for each face-face edge. I have searched high and low, but have not yet found any website that gives these angles.

I have taken the painful steps of calculating these angles for the truncated icosahedron.

Fairlake west virginia disappearance 1817Using these steps you can then find the angle for any of the other regular polyhedra. The truncated icosahedron is made up of 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons, all with the same side length.

Since they all have the same size sides, we will define every other measurement in terms of side length, and call it 1. Each pentagon is surrounded by 5 hexagons. Each hexagon is surrounded by 3 pentagons and 3 hexagons, alternating. Every edge will join with two others, always an HH edge and two HP edges will meet at each vertex.

As I said, there are lots of sources to find the breakdown of the math used to get these results. I only add them here for your convenience.

P 3 would be the same point as P 1. This makes a decagon sided figuretraveling across the faces of 4 pentagons, 4 hexagons, and 2 HH edges.

## Geodesic Dome Notes & Calculator

If we then use a little algebra, we get:. But, is this correct? How can it be verified? Taking the red-outlined area from Fig 1, and rotating we get Fig 2. Note, these figures are not to scale or proportion.

Using the Law of Cosineswe get:. A truncated icosahedron is made by truncating cutting off a regular pentagonal pyramid from each of the tips of an icosahedron, hence the name. In order to find the angles we want, we must first find the height of a pentagon Fig 8a. Either use the Pythagorean Theorem or trigonometry to find height H. The faces of the pyramid are all equilateral triangles.

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